Download PDF by Ernest Preston Edwards: A Field Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Adjacent Areas:

By Ernest Preston Edwards

ISBN-10: 0292720912

ISBN-13: 9780292720916

Этот определитель включает детальное описание для легкой идентификации всех мексиканских видов птиц. Описание включает английские, испанские и латинские названия, характеристику ареала, местообитаний, обилия.
Доп. информация: Файл является рипом с сайта Google Books. Этим определяется отсутствие некоторых страниц (до 20% от общего числа) и невысокое разрешение сканирования (около a hundred dpi). Образцы страниц
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Additional resources for A Field Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Adjacent Areas: Belize, Guatemala and El Salvador

Example text

66) Λ1/2 , for ψ > 0, (Λ > 1). 67) where τ = ϕ − ϕ0 , upper signs stand for the plasma region, and the lower ones for field line coordinates are located at the the coil region. Note that when ϕ = ϕ0 the√ farthest point from the X-point z s (ϕ0 ) = ± 2a/R0 . 6 Snowflake Divertor Configuration Up to now we have considered divertor tokamaks with the first order–null of the poloidal magnetic field at the X-point, where its first derivatives have finite values. By the appropriate choice of the divertor currents one can make the latter also vanish at the X-point.

2 Magnetic Field of Plasmas with the Shafranov Shift Unlike the standard model in a real toroidal plasma the magnetic surfaces are shifted outwardly along the major radius R due to the plasma pressure and the electric current (Shafranov 1964). The geometry of such magnetic surfaces with circular cross sections is shown in Fig. 1. The quantity R p (ρ) is the radial position of the center of the magnetic surface of radius ρ. If a is the last magnetic surface, then the quantity Δ(ρ) = R p (ρ) − R p (a) describes the shift of magnetic surface of radius ρ with respect to the center of plasma center R p (a) which coincides with the torus center R0 .

1 Standard X-point Let (z = z s , pz = ps ) be the coordinate of the X-point. The open and closed field lines, and the separatrix near the X-point are schematically plotted in Fig. 6. Consider first the case when the poloidal magnetic field has the first order null. , B R , B Z ≈ az (z − z s ) + a p ( pz − ps ), where az = 0, a p = 0. This case corresponds to the standard divertor configuration in tokamak plasmas. 12) determined by the equations, ∂ψ dz = = 0, dϕ ∂ pz ∂ψ dpz =− = 0. 37) Consider field lines near the X-point (see Fig.

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A Field Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Adjacent Areas: Belize, Guatemala and El Salvador by Ernest Preston Edwards


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