By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides
022 x 1OSA at. wt. 24 x 1012 emission 1 roentgen/hour at 1 cm (from gamma-ray-emitting point source). 7 x 101° by international agreement. Symbol for the "curie" is Ci. , carbon-12) E average energy emitted per disintegration (MeV). If exposure-rate constant Ilb is in R cm2 mCi-' h-l. See Eq. 35 et sea. 4 Loss-of-Charge Method. For charged-particle emitters the loss-of-charge method allows the number of such particles emitted to be calculated from a measurement of the charge transfer. Since the method is rather insensitive, it is not recommended for practical use.
5) where p(t) is the total number of photons emitted a t time t. The decay time T is characteristic of the scintillator and determines the rise time of pulses produced a t the output of the phototube. Decay times, to 11 e, are of the order of 1 ps or less for inorganic scintillators. 2 to 10 ns. Anthracene crystal has a decay time of about 30 ns, and naphthalene 75 ns. In addition to the time response, a major consideration in the performance of a phosphor as a scintillation detector is the absorption of the light emitted by the scintillation process in traversing the scintillator material.
This parameter, which varies from 0 to 1, indicates the degree of overlap of the emission spectrum of the solute and the absorption spectrum of the photocathode. Thus the first three terms in F are dependent upon the choice of scintillator while m depends on the scintillator-phototube combination. Values for some of these parameters are given in Table 6. Examples of the use of the "scintillation figure of merit" are given in Birks (1975). Table 5 shows solvent scintillation efficiencies relative to that of toluene.
A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements