By Bill Davey, Clive Mathews
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Additional info for A Model for Information Support of Environmental Management Systems
In Fig. 3 the modelled sulphate concentrations are compared to observed concentration data for measurement stations all over Europe. Extra WTM model runs were performed to calculate the concentration levels at the locations of the measurement stations. The values taken into account were restricted to data measured within the mixing layer assumed for the WTM calculations. The two dashed lines represent an over- and underestimation of a factor of two. More than 85% of the data points lay between these two lines so that the most concentration data calculated by the model show smaller deviations to the observed data than a factor of two, with a slight overestimation.
Ambient particles are a complex mixture, varying in size and in composition. This leads to E-R functions for particles in terms of total suspended particles (TSP); PM 10 (inhalable particles); black smoke (BS); finer fractions such as PM 2s or sulphates; and other indices. g. European Commission (1995a); COMEAP, 1998). This is because PM10 has been or is the basis of standards (and so of routine monitoring) in many countries and many epidemiological studies are now available in that metric. However, the particles of interest in the present project are not typical of ambient PM 10 generally.
H, ca. h. 1 Regional Scale 29 These studies clearly suggest that road-traffic emissions have a significant role to play in ozone formation over Europe, even by the year 2010. Indeed, roadtraffic as a whole is found to be the most important source-sector, and within this sector the biggest contributors are found to be heavy-duty vehicles and evaporative emissions. Thus, both NO, and VOC are found to be important. Negative NO, effects in some areas are offset by positive effects elsewhere. 3 Global Scale (Ozone} The global three-dimensional dynamic-chemical climate model ECHAM3/CHEM was used to estimate the effects of changes in NOx emissions over Europe on the global ozone concentration.
A Model for Information Support of Environmental Management Systems by Bill Davey, Clive Mathews