By Gilbert N. Ling
The essence of a massive revolution in phone body structure -- the 1st because the cellphone was once famous because the easy unit of lifestyles a century and a part in the past -- is gifted and substitute theories are mentioned during this textual content. even though the normal membrane-pump thought continues to be being taught, one other thought of the dwelling telephone, known as the association-induction speculation, has been proposed. It has effectively withstood twenty-five years of globally checking out and has already generated an bettering diagnostic software of serious strength, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This quantity is meant for lecturers, scholars and researchers of biology and drugs.
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In this table, the maximum available energy measured is compared with the minimum energy needs over a period of time ranging from 4 to 10 hours. Assuming further that the cell required energy only for the pumping of Naf , and that all energy utilization and transfer processes were 10 0 % efficient, the minimum energy needed by the Na pump at the plasma membrane alone was from 1542% to 3050% of the maximum available energy (Ling 1962, Chapter 8). 8 Rcal/mole of utilizable free energy in its phosphate bonds.
4. B. Electron micrograph o f a representative area in a section through ghost membrane pelleted by high speed centrifugation (100,000 g, 80 min) and lixed in glutaraldehyde-OsO,. The ghosts appear as empty sacs hounded by continuous unit mem branes. Fibrillar material is seen along the inner surfaces o f the ghost membranes (magnification 90,000 x ). ) 27 THE MEMBRANE-PUMP THEORY ' k+ No+ J К L ---------M °0 N 0 P . (>. 5B). Ordinate represents the ratio o f the concentration o f K * or Na* ion in tlie ghost water over the concentration of the same ion in the incubation medium.
5B). Ordinate represents the ratio o f the concentration o f K * or Na* ion in tlie ghost water over the concentration of the same ion in the incubation medium. 3). Each point is the average o f at least four determinations. T h e diameter ol the solid circles (K4 ) and hollow circles (Naf ) represents twice the standard error. ing and Tucker 1983). In summary, hollow red cell ghosts do not transport K+ and Na+ against concentration gradients; only solid ones, retaining a good deal of the cytoplasmic protein hemoglobin, do.
A Revolution in the Physiology of the Living Cell by Gilbert N. Ling