Download PDF by Penelope Probert Smith: Active sensors for local planning in mobile robotics

By Penelope Probert Smith

ISBN-10: 9810246811

ISBN-13: 9789810246815

ISBN-10: 9812811141

ISBN-13: 9789812811141

Describes fresh paintings on lively sensors for cellular robots. information of the actual operation are hidden. bargains often with energetic variety sensors, which supply fast info for neighborhood making plans, describing extraction of two-dimensional gains corresponding to traces, corners, and cylinders.

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Power reflected from the side-lobes, especially near the peaks of the first, may contribute to the echo received, sometimes suggesting that there is an object in front of the transducer whereas in fact it is well off centre. Altering Aperture Shape 29 When the same antenna is used as a receiver it is again directive, picking up radiation mainly along the line of sight for a circular aperture. We can use the reciprocity theorem from antenna theory [Skolnik 81] to show that the pattern in receiving and transmitting is identical.

Water vapour is the dominant factor affecting attenuation. Frequency bands are selected which lie within the regions of low attenuation when long distances need to be covered. Frequency use is controlled closely by the telecommunications regulating bodies. For robotics, for which distances are normally small, other frequencies may be feasible technically, but there are few products available outside the commercial frequencies. The resolution is inadequate for feature localisation at longer wavelengths.

It normally operates at around 45kHz (wavelength about 7mm), a frequency which provides a range of about 5m. High frequency radar has some similar characteristics. Radar has the advantage of far lower attenuation in air, but is expensive. Frequencies of 77GHz and 94GHz, for which the wavelength is a few millimetres, has been investigated for outdoor navigation [Clark and Durrant-Whyte 98a; Boehnke 98]. However systems suitable for robotics are less advanced than sonar systems, partly owing to their expense.

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Active sensors for local planning in mobile robotics by Penelope Probert Smith

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