By N. Bowditch
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Figure 321. Polar stereographic projection. The polar azimuthal equidistant projection is useful for showing a large area such as a hemisphere because there is 34 NAUTICAL CHARTS no expansion along the meridians. However, the projection is not conformal and distances cannot be measured accurately in any but a north-south direction. Great circles other than the meridians differ somewhat from straight lines. The equator is a circle centered at the pole. The two projections most commonly used for polar charts are the modified Lambert conformal and the polar stereographic.
A line or bar called a graphic scale may be drawn at a convenient place on the chart and subdivided into nautical miles, meters, etc. All charts vary somewhat in scale from point to point, and in some projections the scale is not the same in all directions about a single point. A single subdivided line or bar for use over an entire chart is shown only when the chart is of such scale and projection that the scale varies a negligible amount over the chart, usually one of about 1:75,000 or larger.
1) miles to an inch. 9) inch to a mile. 39) = 1:4,374,803. A chart covering a relatively large area is called a small-scale chart and one covering a relatively small area is called a large-scale chart. Since the terms are relative, there is no sharp division between the two. Thus, a chart of scale 1:100,000 is large scale when compared with a chart of 1:1,000,000 but small scale when compared with one of 1:25,000. 35 As scale decreases, the amount of detail which can be shown decreases also. Cartographers selectively decrease the detail in a process called generalization when producing small scale charts using large scale charts as sources.
American Practical Navigator by N. Bowditch