By Barton E. Worthington
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Additional resources for Arid Land Irrigation in Developing Countries. Environmental Problems and Effects
The percentage of salt-affected and waterlogged soils amounts to 50 percent of the irrigated area in Iraq, 23 percent of all Pakistan, 80 percent in Punjab (Pakistan), 50 percent in the Euphrates Valley in Syria, 30 percent in Egypt, and over 15 percent in Iran. Rise in groundwater tables reaches several meters a year, sometimes as much as 3-5 m a year. There are numerous cases throughout the world where the water table has risen within 10 years from about 25-30 m below soil surface up to 1-2 m depth.
The development of vegetation like Pistia and Polygonum favors the genus Mansonia whose larvae and pupae attach to roots, stems and leaves. Stable waters, especially when infested with weeds and polluted with organic matter, provide a suitable breeding place for Culex. The Anopheles gambiae complex prefers transient, shallow, sunlit weedless water bodies like irrigation pools, whilst Anopheles funestus is associated with ditches and swampy areas. As will be noted in Chapter 6, conditions created by flooding of poorly graded fields are suitable for the breeding of mosquitoes, and irrigation pools created by the use of brackish water support mosquitoes which tolerate saline water.
In any case, the process is inevitable whenever drainage is inadequate. Most cases of secondary soil salinization are associated with rise of the water table whether due to high salinity of the groundwater or to dissolving of solid phase salts by rising fresh groundwater. Especially serious problems arise with secondary soda salinization (alkalinization) of the irrigated soils. Many countries of Asia, Africa, Europe, and South and North America suffer from the process of alkalinization. 0 g/1) alkaline groundwaters, or by diluted soda-carrying irrigation waters (the Nile, Indus Rivers, under ground waters of California, Hungary, Pakistan, South and Central Ukraine), or both (Kovda, p.
Arid Land Irrigation in Developing Countries. Environmental Problems and Effects by Barton E. Worthington