By Francis M. Carroll
This ebook is an account of a catastrophe at sea, the sinking through a German submarine of the passenger liner Athenia crusing from Liverpool to Montreal, loaded with americans, Canadians, and Europeans, trying to go the Atlantic prior to the outbreak of struggle. even if 112 humans have been misplaced, of whom 30 have been the 1st americans killed within the conflict, 1,306 have been rescued. Housewives, young children, students, scientists, actresses, and Jewish refugees have been one of the sufferers, or even younger John F. Kennedy was once referred to as directly to provide counsel. The drama, tragedy, and triumph in their stories are a significant a part of the tale. yet after all the e-book can also be approximately battle and politics. certainly, this is often really the place the second one international battle begun. right here Germany, having already invaded Poland in what used to be anticipated to be a constrained warfare, first struck the western Allies, Britain and France. This was once the 1st blow, fired suddenly, simply hours after conflict used to be declared. For Britain, the sinking of the Athenia used to be obvious as either a contravention of overseas legislations and a go back to the type of overall struggle Germany had waged within the nice struggle. The sinking of the Athena instantly driven Britain to undertake convoys to guard transport, and it served from the 1st to form British public opinion towards the battle. In Canada the sinking of the send and especially the dying of the blameless, ten yr previous Margaret Hayworth, grew to become emotional matters round which a lot of the kingdom may possibly rally in aid of the choice of Parliament to visit struggle. within the usa President Franklin D. Roosevelt was once too cautious to make the sinking of the Athenia the counterpart of the sinking of the Lusitania within the First global conflict. in spite of the fact that, the Athenia uncovered Germany within the public brain as a major danger to american citizens, and supplied the chance for President Roosevelt to open direct verbal exchange with Winston Churchill. The Athenia helped to alter public opinion within the usa sufficiently to amend the prevailing Neutrality legislation to permit the rustic to promote munitions and provides to Britain and France—a supportive first step to assembly the Nazi possibility at once. So the sinking of the Athenia is a story jam-packed with that means and keenness that merits to be identified.
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Extra resources for Athenia Torpedoed: The U-Boat Attack that Ignited the Battle of the Atlantic
The model has not contributed to development or improvement in military education and training in civil-military interaction based on lessons-learned, nor does it allow for the adjustments and difficult choices that must be made by all actors in specific conflict contexts. The model lacks important content, contextual awareness, and guidance. Some Norwegian (and other international) civilian actors have expressed satisfaction with the Norwegian approach because the result has been that the Norwegian military stays out of their way and does not encroach on NGO activities, in other words, the military keeps to “military” activities.
The assumed advantages accrued by the model are not borne out by experience in Afghanistan. I further explore what are the potential results (based on previous experience) of eliminating a civilmilitary capacity like CIMIC. What advantages or disadvantages result? It is my contention that reducing civil-military capacities brings little to no advantage to future operations. In the concluding chapter, Chapter 10, I review some of the main arguments presented in the previous chapters, and draw on some final examples that illustrate further the complexity and challenges of this civil-military field of theory and practice that cannot be reduced to a weak policy that calls simply for a “divide but coordinate” approach to all civil-military contexts.
As noted by Kristoffersen: Are Nato CIMIC officers supposed to act like soldiers or saints? Should they stick to the military mindset of mission primacy, or also be able to venture into the civilian-humanitarian field if the opportunity arises and means allow for it? Nato CIMIC calls for soldiers, not saints. (Kristoffersen 2006: 27) The “saints” are equated to the civilian-humanitarian field, and thus set in opposition to soldiers. In general, soldiers are trained to kill people and destroy things (Smith 2005).
Athenia Torpedoed: The U-Boat Attack that Ignited the Battle of the Atlantic by Francis M. Carroll