New PDF release: Battery reference book(c)

By Crompton T.R.

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F. values during charge and discharge at 25°C with the thermodynamic curve at 25°C for charge and discharge. f. f. at various sulphuric acid concentrations. Three temperatures likely to be encountered in battery operation are included: W C , 25°C and 40°C. f. f. of a lead-acid battery: 0, 15°C; x, 25°C; e, 40°C (dEldT) for the three temperature ranges 15-25"C, 2 5 4 0 ° C and 15-40°C. It can be seen that dEldT is independent of temperature range but depends on the electrolyte concentration. e. f.

The electrode (oxidation) process may be written in the following general form: The activity of acu of the solid metal is unity, by convention, and hence RT E = E ! 35) nH+ + n e = inHz(g) so that the electrode potential is dependent on the standard (oxidation) potential E:, of the Cu, Cu2+ system, and on the activity acu2+ of the cupric ions in the copper sulphate solution. f. 33) where parentheses have been used to represent the activities of the oxidized and reduced states as they actually occur in the cell.

For an ideal solution, activity equals the concentrations of dissolved electrolytes. Very few solutions, in fact, behave ideally, although in some cases very dilute solutions approach ideal behaviour. By definition, however, cell electrolytes are not dilute and hence it is necessary when carrying out thermodynamic calculations to use activities rather than concentrations. Most electrolytes consist of a solute dissolved in a solvent, commonly water, although, in some types of cell, solutions of various substances in organic solvents are used.

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Battery reference book(c) by Crompton T.R.

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