By Josiane F. Hamers
This up to date and revised version of Hamers and Blanc's winning textbook provides new wisdom approximately languages involved from person bilinguality to societal bilingualism. it truly is multi- and interdisciplinary in procedure, and analyzes bilingualism at person, interpersonal, and societal degrees. Linguistic, cognitive and sociocultural facets of bilingual improvement are explored, as are bilingual difficulties. The authors conceal a number concerns together with the connection between tradition, id, and language habit in multicultural settings; communique concepts in interpersonal and intergroup kin; language shift; pidgins and creoles; language making plans; and bilingual schooling.
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Additional resources for Bilinguality and Bilingualism
In these tasks a bilingual subject is asked to verbally either decode or encode Measurement of bilinguality and bilingualism 37 or both; his reaction time to the task in each language is measured. Equal reaction times in the two languages indicate a state of balanced bilinguality. Reaction times have been used as a measure of bilinguality in the following tasks: (a) Verbal decoding, non-verbal encoding. For example, a subject is asked to react to oral instructions in both languages by pressing one of two keys; if the reaction times to the same instruction in the two languages are equal, subjects are classiﬁed as balanced (Lambert, 1955).
This function is what Bruner (1975b) calls ‘analytic competence’, the conceptual-linguistic abilities involving ‘the prolonged operation of thought processes exclusively on linguistic representations and propositional structures’. Linguistic representations are not stored in their original input form but undergo a processing and are stored in propositional forms. The conceptual-linguistic abilities are crucial in the comprehension of abstract concepts, the analysis of linguistic statements, the understanding of subtle semantic distinctions, etc.
We have also not included in our review qualitative research methods; for these the reader is referred to Davis (1995) and Lazaraton (1995). 1 The measurement of bilinguality The measurement of bilinguality must take into consideration the deﬁnition of bilinguality, that is, it should assess a psychological state and therefore account for its speciﬁcity. If bilinguality is deﬁned as a psycho- 34 Dimensions and measurement logical state of the individual who has access to more than one linguistic code, one might think it suﬃcient to measure two separate monolingual states to obtain an adequate measure of bilinguality.
Bilinguality and Bilingualism by Josiane F. Hamers